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- Musculoskeletal Wellbeing - Smooth Muscles - Level
2 to H4H Monographs -
Musculoskeltal Wellbeing Smooth Muscles
Background The human
muscular system is made up of over 600 muscles, which act in groups.
All muscles are made up of the same type of material - a kind
of an elastic tissue made from thousands of tiny fibers. Muscles are
what enable one to do just about everything - from walking, to
lifting heavy objects, to helping to pump blood throughout the
body. They are classified as either involuntary or
voluntary. Involuntary muscles function within the body
automatically, without one being able to control them. Voluntary
muscles are the the muscles that do not function
automatically but are under the control of the individual.
The muscular system is incredibly important for two key
reasons: 1. By turning energy into movement it iprovides the
means of locomotion . 2. By turning energy into bodily
activity and function it powers metabolism. Every expression of the
brain is done by muscular means. The only way to express an idea is
with the muscles of the larynx, mouth or tongue (spoken words)
finger muscles (writing) or with the skeletal muscles (body
language, dancing, running, building or fighting) to name a
Thus muscles are
essential for both movement and metabolism.
The main types of muscle are: 1. Skeletal
Muscles which come in pairs one muscle to move the bone in
one direction and another to move it back the other way. They are
also called striated muscle, because when viewed under a microscope
one can see alternating stripes of light and dark. Skeletal
muscles are also known as voluntary muscles because their movement
is triggered manually by a conscious decision.
the other major skeletal muscles include the deltoid muscle in the
shoulders, the biceps and triceps in the arm, the pectoralis in the
chest, the rectus abdominus in the abdomen, the quadriceps and the
hamstring muscles in the legs
2. Smooth muscles
are found in the digestive system, blood vessels, bladder, airways
and, the uterus in the case of a female. They contract involuntarily
in that their movement is unconscious and not manual. They are
controlled by the nervous system automatically without a conscious
decision. For example the gastrointestinal tract functions all day
long without conscious thought or (for the most part)
Smooth muscles generally occur in layers or
sheets, with one muscle layer behind another. This is in
distintinction to skeletal muscles which occur in
smooth muscles are the stomach and the digestive system, which
contract and relax in order to pass food through the alimentary
canal of the body. The bladder is another example of smooth muscle,
and so is the uterus in women. Smooth muscles also occur in the eyes
and help to keep the eyes focused. It is estimated
that the eyes can move over 100,000 times in a day making them
the busiest muscles in the human muscular system
muscles are found only in association with the heart, and
their big features are endurance and consistency. They can stretch
like smooth muscle, and contract with the force of a skeletal
purposes the skeletal and smooth muscles are the only two muscle
types considered part of the musculoskeletal ysstem. The cardiac
muscles are not included in the musculoskeletal
Disorders of Smooth Muscles 1. Arteriosclerosis/
Hypertension Smooth muscle cells lining the
artery walls have been implicated in atherosclerosis and
hypertension (high blood pressure). In hypertension an increase in
the size of the individual cells (hypertrophy) and in their number
(i.e., hyperplasia) has been hypothesized. The increased quantity of
smooth muscle in the artery wall increases the constrictive ability
of the artery or the artery wall thickness constricting the lumen of
the artery thus reducing blood flow. To compensate for this
resistance to blood flow, the cardiovascular system responds by
elevating blood pressure to ensure that the various tissues of the
body are adequately supplied with blood. A consequence of the need
to raise blood pressure, however, is a greater workload for the
heart, and thus individuals who are diagnosed with high blood
pressure are at a higher risk of heart attack or stroke.
Asthma Asthma is an inflammatory disease in which
the smooth muscle of the bronchioles become constricted by swelling,
making breathing difficult.
This holistic approach
involves a reduction in the Total Environmental Load that an asthma
sufferer experiences. The concept includes identifying food,
chemical and environmental allergens, decreasing inflammatory agents
in the diet, and reducing stress all of which are well established
asthma triggers. Reducing the Total Environmental Load together with
the introduction of important Homeopathic measures can have a highly
positive effect; sometimes asthma may even be eradicated.
Homeopathics Homeopathic medicines have
been used successfully as alternatives to steroid/ bronchodilator
medications and can be given in acute situations to reduce reliance
on puffers. More importantly professional Homeopathic treatment
works holistically reducing the Total Environmental Load which in turn progresses the patient towards cure.
Muscle Tumour/ Uterine Tumour/ Fibroids/ Leiomyomas
Leiomyoma is a benign smooth-muscle tumor
fibroid that most commonly affects the body of the uterus but may
also be found in the cervix, broad ligament and rarely the ovary.
Frequency. The true prevalence of uterine leiomyomas or
fibroids as they are colloquially known, is uncertain, even though
they are the most frequent tumor found in the female genital tract.
They are present in 20-30% of women over 30 years of age rising to
more than 40% in those over 40 years old. There can be no
doubt that a high proportion of women harbor leiomyomas completely
without symptoms and consequently the above figures would be an
underestimate of the problem.
The precise etiology of leiomyomas is unknown,
although it is clear that the effects of hormones are pivotal.
Leiomyomas are tumors that occur during the reproductive period, a
time when hormonal influences are at their maximum. They first
become apparent after the menarche, enlarge during pregnancy, and
regress after the menopause. Even so, experimental attempts to
induce leiomyoma development by the administration of estrogens in
animals have failed. Recent evidence has strengthened the view that
ther are other players in the pathogenesis of leiomyomas as yet
Homeopathics Homeopathy works in a
non invasive way to shrink the growth and export out the effete
4. Incontinence/ Urinary
Incontinence Urinary incontinence (UI) is any
involuntary leakage of urine. It is a common and distressing
problem, which may have a profound impact on quality of
is due to insufficient pelvic strength. .
Urge incontinence is involuntary loss
Overflow incontinence involves a
constant dribble from the bladder.
Mixed incontinence is when
incontinence alternates with urinary retention.
Functional incontinence occurs when a
person recognizes the need to urinate, but cannot physically make
it to the bathroom in time. People with functional
incontinence may have problems thinking, moving, or communicating
that prevent them from reaching a toilet. A person with
Alzheimer's Disease for example, may not think well enough to plan
a timely trip to a restroom. A person in a wheelchair may be
blocked from getting to a toilet in time.
Episodic Incontinence (bedwetting)
while asleep. It is normal in young children.
Transient incontinence is a temporary
incontinence triggered by medications, adrenal insufficiency,
mental impairment, restricted mobility, and stool
A hiatial or hiatus hernia is
the protrusion (or herniation) of the upper part of the stomach into
the thorax through a tear or weakness in the diaphragm.
An inguinal hernia is when part of
the small intestine (bowel) protrudes through the lower abdominal
muscles. An inguinal hernia occurs in the groin - the area between
the abdomen and thigh. An inguinal hernia can occur any time from
infancy to adulthood and is much more common in males than females.
Inguinal hernias tend to become larger with time.
Sudden twists, pulls,
or muscle strains
Lifting heavy objects
Straining on the toilet because of
A small bulge in
one or both sides of the groin that may increase in size and
disappear when lying down; in males, it can present as a swollen
or enlarged scrotum
Discomfort or sharp painespecially
when straining, lifting, or exercisingthat improves when
A feeling of weakness or
pressure in the groin
A burning, gurgling, or aching
feeling at the bulge
Homeopathics Works by removing
congestion, increasing muscle strength and muscle elasticity
Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) Irritable bowel
syndrome (IBS or spastic colon) is a functional bowel disorder
characterized by chronic abdominal pain, discomfort, bloating, and
alteration of bowel habits in the absence of any detectable organic
cause. Diarrhea or constipation may predominate, or they may
alternate. IBS may begin after an infection (post-infectious,
IBS-PI), a stressful life event, or onset of maturity without any
other medical indicators.